Social Psychology Network

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Russell Spears

Russell Spears

My main research interests are in the area of social identity and intergroup relations. I have conducted research on social categorization and social stereotyping processes, prejudice and discrimination, and collective action and resistance to group disadvantage more generally. Much of this research focuses on the role of group-based emotions. I am also interested in social influence processes and power relations, especially as applied to the realm of computer mediated communication. My work draws on and develops social identity and self-categorization theories, and the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE model).

Primary Interests:

  • Communication, Language
  • Emotion, Mood, Affect
  • Group Processes
  • Intergroup Relations
  • Internet and Virtual Psychology
  • Persuasion, Social Influence
  • Prejudice and Stereotyping
  • Self and Identity
  • Social Cognition

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Journal Articles:

  • De Lemus, S., Spears, R., & Moya, M. (2012) The power of a smile to move you: Complementary submissiveness in women’s posture as a function of gender salience and facial expression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1480-1494. DOI: 10.1177/0146167212454178
  • Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161-186.
  • Jetten, J., Spears, R. & Postmes, T. (2004). Intergroup distinctiveness and differentiation: A meta-analytic integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 862-879.
  • Klein, O., Spears, R., & Reicher, S. (2007). Social identity performance: Extending the strategic side of the SIDE model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 28-45.
  • Le Pelley, M.E., Reimers, S.J., Calvini, G., Spears, R., Beesley, T., & Murphy, R.A. (2010). Stereotype formation: Biased by association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 138-161.
  • Leach, C.W., & Spears, R. (2008). “A vengefulness of the impotent”: The pain of in-group inferiority and schadenfreude toward successful out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1383-1396.
  • Leach, C.W., Van Zomeren, M., Zebel, S., Vliek, M.L.W., Pennekamp, S.F., Doosje, B., Ouwerkerk, J.W., & Spears, R. (2008). Group-level self-definition and self-investment: A hierarchical (multi-component) model of in-group identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 144-165.
  • Livingstone, A.G., Spears, R., & Manstead, A.S.R., (2009). The language of change? Characterisations of ingroup social position, threat, and the deployment of 'distinctive' group attributes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 295-311.
  • Scheepers, D., Spears, R., Doosje, B., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2006). Diversity in in-group bias: Structural factors, situational features, and social functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 944-960.
  • Scheepers, D., Spears, R., Manstead, A.S.R., & Doosje, B. (2009). The influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 506-515.
  • Spears, R. (2010). Group rationale, collective sense: Beyond intergroup bias. Invited position paper. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 1-20.
  • Spears, R., Ellemers N., & Doosje, B. (2009). Strength in numbers or less is more? A matter of opinion and a question of taste. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1099-1111.
  • Spears, R., Gordijn, E., Dijksterhuis, A., & Stapel, D.A. (2004). Reaction in action: Intergroup contrast in automatic behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 605-616.
  • Spears, R., Lea, M., Corneliussen, R. A., Postmes, T., & Ter Haar, W. (2002). Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance: The strategic side of SIDE. Small Group Research, 33, 555-574.
  • Spears, R., Postmes, T., Lea, M., & Wolbert, A. (2002). When are net effects gross products? The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communication. The Journal of Social Issues, 58, 91-107.
  • Tausch, N., Becker, J.C., Spears, R., Christ, O., Saab, R., Singh, P., & Siddiqui, R.N. (2011). Explaining Radical Group Behavior: Developing Emotion and Efficacy Routes to Normative and Nonnormative Collective Action Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 129-148. DOI: 10.1037/a0022728
  • Van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 504-535.
  • Van Zomeren, M., Spears, R., Fischer, A., & Leach, C.W. (2004). Put your money where your mouth is! Explaining collective action tendencies through group-based anger and group efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 649-664.

Russell Spears
Department of Social Psychology
University of Groningen, Heymans Institute
Grote Kruisstraat 2
9712 TS Groningen
The Netherlands

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